Background: Limited data are available indicating the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on metabolic status of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Purpose: The present study was conducted to determine the effects of CoQ10 administration on glucose homeostasis parameters, lipid profiles, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among patients with MetS.
Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed among 60 overweight or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary heart disease aged 40-85 years old. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A (n = 30) received 100 mg CoQ10 supplements and group B (n = 30) received placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 8-week intervention to quantify glucose homeostasis parameters, lipid profiles and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Results: Compared with the placebo, CoQ10 supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in serum insulin levels (-2.1 ± 7.1 vs. +4.1 ± 7.8 µIU/mL, P = 0.002) and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-0.7 ± 2.1 vs. +1.0 ± 2.0, P = 0.002) and homeostatic model assessment-beta cell function (-5.9 ± 22.2 vs. +15.9 ± 34.0, P = 0.005). In addition, patients who received CoQ10 supplements had a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) concentrations (+26.0 ± 105.0 vs. -162.2 ± 361.8 mmol/L, P = 0.008) compared with the placebo group. However, after adjustment for the baseline levels, age and baseline BMI, the effect on TAC levels (P = 0.08) disappeared. Additionally, compared with the placebo group, a significant positive trends in plasma glutathione (P = 0.06) and a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (P = 0.08) were seen among patients who received CoQ10 supplement. We did not observe any significant changes in fasting plasma glucose, lipid concentrations and inflammatory markers.
Conclusions: Overall, daily intake of 100 mg CoQ10 supplements among patients with MetS for 8 weeks had beneficial effects on serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and plasma TAC concentrations.
Clinical trial registration number: www.irct.ir : IRCT201502245623N35.
Keywords: Coenzyme Q10; Coronary heart disease; Metabolic syndrome; Supplementation; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.