Purpose: To characterize the optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography, en face OCT, and microperimetry features of paracentral acute middle maculopathy in both the acute phase and after resolution, and to propose a classification of distinct subtypes of this entity.
Design: Retrospective observational case series.
Methods: Clinical histories, high-resolution digital color imaging, spectral-domain OCT images, fluorescein angiography, OCT angiography images, and en face OCT images of 16 patients with paracentral acute middle maculopathy were evaluated. Microperimetry was available in 6 patients.
Results: The most common referring diagnoses were isolated branch retinal arterial occlusion (5/16), combined central retinal vein and cilioretinal artery occlusion (4/16), and isolated central retinal vein occlusion (4/16). All patients demonstrated hyperreflective plaque-like lesions at the level of the inner nuclear layer on spectral-domain OCT, with no fluorescein angiographic correlate. OCT angiography demonstrated variable areas of capillary dropout within the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexi in these areas. En face OCT highlighted confluent areas of middle retina hyperreflectivity corresponding to these lesions. Three distinct en face OCT patterns were observed: arteriolar, fern-like, and globular. Microperimetry demonstrated relative scotomas mapping to the area of middle retinal hyperreflectivity seen on en face OCT.
Conclusions: Paracentral acute middle maculopathy may be best evaluated with the use of en face OCT imaging, which corresponds to subjective and objective visual field defects. En face OCT appearance may be used to classify paracentral acute maculopathy into distinct subtypes.
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