Mechanisms contributing to myocardial potassium channel diversity, regulation and remodeling

Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2016 Apr;26(3):209-18. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2015.07.002. Epub 2015 Jul 17.


In the mammalian heart, multiple types of K(+) channels contribute to the control of cardiac electrical and mechanical functioning through the regulation of resting membrane potentials, action potential waveforms and refractoriness. There are similarly vast arrays of K(+) channel pore-forming and accessory subunits that contribute to the generation of functional myocardial K(+) channel diversity. Maladaptive remodeling of K(+) channels associated with cardiac and systemic diseases results in impaired repolarization and increased propensity for arrhythmias. Here, we review the diverse transcriptional, post-transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic mechanisms contributing to regulating the expression, distribution, and remodeling of cardiac K(+) channels under physiological and pathological conditions.

Keywords: Arrhythmias; Cardiac hypertrophy; Diabetes; Heart failure; Long non-coding RNAs; MicroRNAs; Myocardial excitability; Transcription factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials
  • Atrial Remodeling*
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Heart Diseases / genetics
  • Heart Diseases / metabolism*
  • Heart Diseases / pathology
  • Heart Diseases / physiopathology
  • Heart Rate
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Potassium / metabolism*
  • Potassium Channels / genetics
  • Potassium Channels / metabolism*
  • RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Ventricular Remodeling*


  • Potassium Channels
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • Potassium