mTOR in health and in sickness

J Mol Med (Berl). 2015 Oct;93(10):1061-73. doi: 10.1007/s00109-015-1326-7. Epub 2015 Sep 22.


Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a highly conserved protein kinase that plays a key role in mediating cell growth and homeostasis. It is activated by nutrients, growth factors, and cellular energy levels to control a number of anabolic and catabolic processes. It is a validated drug target implicated in a variety of diseases. In this review, we describe the molecular mode of action of TOR in the context of cellular and organismal physiology. We focus on mammalian TOR (mTOR) signaling in cancer and neurological disease and discuss usage of TOR inhibitors in the clinic.

Keywords: Disease; Health; Rapalogs; Rapamycin; TOR; mTOR; mTOR inhibitors; mTORC1; mTORC2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Nervous System Diseases / metabolism
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*


  • MTOR protein, human
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases