The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 Jul;35(5):399-404. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1026427. Epub 2015 Sep 21.


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with regard to their glycemic control and lipid profile.

Methods: One hundred subjects with T2DM were recruited and given 4500 IU/day of vitamin D for 2 months. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile were measured pre- and postsupplementation.

Results: There was a significant increase in the mean value of 25(OH)D level after supplementation (baseline level 16 ± 5.3 ng/ml vs. after supplement level 49.2 ± 17.7 ng/ml, p < 0.05). Both FBG and HbA1c but not lipid profile were significantly decreased after supplementation. However, the univariate general linear model between 25(OH)D percentiles and lipid profile levels showed that diabetic subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (>61 ng/ml) had significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in comparison to those in the low or middle percentiles. Furthermore, participants in a higher percentile had a significantly higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than those in the middle percentile. Lipid profile levels were not affected by the supplement except for triglycerides (TG) levels in females, which were significantly decreased.

Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial to diabetic subjects because it improved glycemic control. Diabetic subjects with high 25(OH)D levels (>61 ng/ml) had better lipid profiles.

Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; diabetes mellitus; glycemic control; lipid profile; vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sex Factors
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives
  • Vitamin D / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipids
  • Vitamin D
  • Cholesterol
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D