Nutrients, satiety, and control of energy intake

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Oct;40(10):971-9. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2014-0549. Epub 2015 May 13.


In the context of the worldwide epidemic of obesity affecting men and women of all ages, it is important to understand the mechanisms that control human appetite, particularly those that allow the adjustment of energy intake to energy needs. Satiety is one important psycho-biological mechanism whose function is to inhibit intake following the ingestion of a food or a beverage. According to the classical theories of appetite control, satiety is influenced by macronutrient intake and/or metabolism. Satiety also seems to be modified by micronutrients, non-nutrients, and some bioactive food constituents. Under optimal conditions, satiety should be well connected with hunger and satiation in a way that spontaneously leads to a close match between energy intake and expenditures. However, the current obesity epidemic suggests that dysfunctions often affect satiety and energy intake. In this regard, this paper presents a conceptual integration that hopefully will help health professionals address satiety issues and provide the public with informed advice to facilitate appetite control.

Keywords: appetite; appétit; obesity; obésité; perte de poids; rassasiement; satiation; weight loss.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Appetite / physiology
  • Appetite Regulation / physiology*
  • Energy Intake / physiology*
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Obesity / physiopathology*
  • Satiation / physiology*