Modeling mouse and human development using organoid cultures

Development. 2015 Sep 15;142(18):3113-25. doi: 10.1242/dev.118570.


In vitro three-dimensional (3D) cultures are emerging as novel systems with which to study tissue development, organogenesis and stem cell behavior ex vivo. When grown in a 3D environment, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) self-organize into organoids and acquire the right tissue patterning to develop into several endoderm- and ectoderm-derived tissues, mimicking their in vivo counterparts. Tissue-resident adult stem cells (AdSCs) also form organoids when grown in 3D and can be propagated in vitro for long periods of time. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in the generation of pluripotent stem cell- and AdSC-derived organoids, highlighting their potential for enhancing our understanding of human development. We will also explore how this new culture system allows disease modeling and gene repair for a personalized regenerative medicine approach.

Keywords: 3D-Organoid Culture; Adult Stem Cell; Disease Modeling; Embryonic Stem Cell; Genetic Engineering.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Embryonic Development / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological*
  • Organoids / embryology*
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / cytology
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells / physiology*
  • Regenerative Medicine / methods*
  • Regenerative Medicine / trends