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Review
, 87 (2 Suppl), 1323-48

From Gene Targeting to Genome Editing: Transgenic Animals Applications and Beyond

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Review

From Gene Targeting to Genome Editing: Transgenic Animals Applications and Beyond

Maurício Rocha-Martins et al. An Acad Bras Cienc.

Abstract

Genome modification technologies are powerful tools for molecular biology and related areas. Advances in animal transgenesis and genome editing technologies during the past three decades allowed systematic interrogation of gene function that can help model how the genome influences cellular physiology. Genetic engineering via homologous recombination (HR) has been the standard method to modify genomic sequences. Nevertheless, nuclease-guided genome editing methods that were developed recently, such as ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas, opened new perspectives for biomedical research. Here, we present a brief historical perspective of genome modification methods, focusing on transgenic mice models. Moreover, we describe how new techniques were discovered and improved, present the paradigm shifts and discuss their limitations and applications for biomedical research as well as possible future directions.

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