Prognostic significance of endothelial dysfunction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the era of drug-eluting stents

BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2015 Sep 23;15:102. doi: 10.1186/s12872-015-0096-z.


Background: Endothelial function is a prognostic predictor in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, in an era with widespread use of drug-eluting stents, the clinical relevance of endothelial dysfunction on restenosis in patients undergoing PCI has not been fully evaluated.

Methods: This study included 80 patients with stable angina pectoris. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery was examined 1 week after PCI. Patients were retrospectively followed-up for an average of 21 months after PCI. The primary endpoints included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, and critical limb ischemia.

Results: A drug-eluting stent was used in 58 patients and a cardiovascular event was recorded in 34 patients during follow-up. The incidence of all cardiovascular diseases was significantly greater in the low FMD (median FMD <4.2%) than the high FMD (median FMD ≥4.2%) group (60% vs. 25%, p <0.01). Furthermore, the incidence of coronary revascularization was significantly higher in the low than the high FMD group (p = 0.02), while the incidence of in-stent restenosis did not differ between the two groups. Cox regression analysis showed that low FMD was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 2.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 6.19, p = 0.01).

Conclusions: Impaired brachial artery FMD independently predicts long-term cardiovascular events after PCI in the era of drug-eluting stents.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angina, Stable / diagnosis
  • Angina, Stable / mortality
  • Angina, Stable / physiopathology
  • Angina, Stable / therapy*
  • Brachial Artery / physiopathology*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Coronary Artery Disease / diagnosis
  • Coronary Artery Disease / mortality
  • Coronary Artery Disease / physiopathology
  • Coronary Artery Disease / therapy*
  • Coronary Restenosis / etiology
  • Coronary Restenosis / physiopathology
  • Critical Illness
  • Drug-Eluting Stents*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ischemia / etiology
  • Ischemia / physiopathology
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Myocardial Infarction / etiology
  • Myocardial Infarction / physiopathology
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / adverse effects
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / instrumentation*
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / mortality
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke / etiology
  • Stroke / physiopathology
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vasodilation*