Anti-inflammatory Diets

J Am Coll Nutr. 2015:34 Suppl 1:14-21. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1080105.


Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology.

Keywords: AA/EPA ratio; HbA1c; TG/HDL ratio; anti-inflammatory diet; metabolic syndrome; omega-3 fatty acids; polyphenols.

MeSH terms

  • Adenylate Kinase / metabolism
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents*
  • Chronic Disease / therapy
  • Diet / methods*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Eicosanoids / biosynthesis
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / administration & dosage
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-6 / administration & dosage
  • Glucagon / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / diet therapy*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Eicosanoids
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-6
  • Insulin
  • NF-kappa B
  • Glucagon
  • Adenylate Kinase