The ZONE Diet and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34 Suppl 1:39-41. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1080110.


Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue, which contributes to obesity-associated complications such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The increased inflammatory response seems to be directly related to modern nutrition, particularly aspects of fat quality and macronutrient composition. We have recently published an observational study investigating the practicability and effects of a combined dietary intervention with increased relative protein content and low-glycemic-index carbohydrates, supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on metabolic control and inflammatory parameters in real-life situations in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary efficacy parameter was the change in HbA1c, and secondary parameters included change in systemic inflammation (measured by ultrasensitive C-reactive protein), body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Counseling a protein-enriched and low-glycemic-index diet supplemented with long-chain omega-3 PUFAs in a real-life clinical setting improved glycemic control, waist circumference, and silent inflammation in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus type 2; dietary protein; inflammation; low glycemic index diet; metabolic control; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adiposity / drug effects
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • C-Reactive Protein / drug effects
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / administration & dosage*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / diet therapy*
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Overweight / blood
  • Overweight / complications
  • Overweight / diet therapy*
  • Waist Circumference / drug effects


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human
  • C-Reactive Protein