Consumption of adequate amounts of dietary protein can help individuals maintain a healthy body composition, especially when combined with resistance exercise and during weight loss. It is well established that dietary protein intake supports muscle development and helps reduce loss of lean body mass during weight loss. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of soy protein intake for promoting fat loss while preserving muscle mass and supporting lean body mass gains. In fact, soy protein and animal-based proteins both support weight loss and weight maintenance equally as part of an energy-restricted diet; however, soy protein offers additional cardiometabolic advantages. Key teaching points: Soy protein is a high-quality, plant-based protein that can be consumed throughout the life span. More human clinical studies have been conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein than any other cholesterol-lowering food ingredient. Ingestion of proteins with unique and complementary characteristics like soy, whey, and casein helps resistance-trained individuals achieve significant muscle growth. Recent research supports the efficacy of consuming a combination of soy, whey, and casein after resistance exercise to extend the time period that muscle building occurs.