The potential of HIV-1 nanotherapeutics: from in vitro studies to clinical trials

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2015;10(24):3597-609. doi: 10.2217/nnm.15.160. Epub 2015 Sep 24.


Since its discovery almost three decades ago, HIV-1 has grown into the most aggressive pandemic of modern time. Following the implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy, the pathological outcome of HIV infection has substantially improved. However, combination antiretroviral therapy is limited by several factors including, long-term toxicity, serious side effects and complex dosing regimens, and so on. In this regard, researchers have directed their attention toward enhancing current treatment strategies and/or developing alternative HIV-1 therapeutics. In recent years, this attention has fixated on nanomedicine-based anti-HIV therapeutics (HIV-1 nanotherapeutics). In the present study, we have reviewed several HIV-1 nanotherapeutics that have shown success at the preclinical level and/or Phase I/II clinical trials. We also discuss the possible benefits of these nanomedicine-based approaches and their future outlook.

Keywords: AIDS; HIV; cART; nanomedicine; nanoparticles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Dendrimers / chemistry
  • Dendrimers / therapeutic use
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Nanomedicine*
  • Nanostructures / chemistry
  • Nanostructures / therapeutic use*
  • Polylysine / chemistry
  • Polylysine / therapeutic use


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Dendrimers
  • SPL7013
  • Polylysine