The purpose of this meta-analysis was aimed to evaluate the association of tumor protein p53 (TP53) gene codon 72 polymorphism with leukemia susceptibility. We searched PubMed to identify relevant studies, and 16 case-control studies from 14 published articles were identified as eligible studies, including 2062 leukemia patients and 5826 controls. After extracting data, odds ratio (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was applied to assess the association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and leukemia susceptibility. The meta-analysis was performed with the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 2.2. Overall, no significant association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and leukemia susceptibility was found in this meta-analysis (Pro vs Arg: OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.90-1.21; Pro/Pro vs Arg/Arg: OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 0.84-1.52; Arg/Pro vs Arg/Arg: OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.76-1.15; [Pro/Pro + Arg/Pro] vs Arg/Arg: OR = 0.99, 95%CI = 0.80-1.21; Pro/Pro vs [Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro]: OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 0.93-1.51). Similar results were also found in subgroup analysis by ethnicity, source of controls, and types of leukemia (either acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may not be a risk factor for acute leukemia; however, due to the limitations of this study, it should be verified in future studies.