Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world

Eur Respir J. 2015 Dec;46(6):1577-88. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01865-2014. Epub 2015 Sep 24.


Climate change policies have stimulated a shift towards renewable energy sources such as biomass. The economic crisis of 2008 has also increased the practice of household biomass burning as it is often cheaper than using oil, gas or electricity for heating. As a result, household biomass combustion is becoming an important source of air pollutants in the European Union.This position paper discusses the contribution of biomass combustion to pollution levels in Europe, and the emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of biomass combustion products.Epidemiological studies in the developed world have documented associations between indoor and outdoor exposure to biomass combustion products and a range of adverse health effects. A conservative estimate of the current contribution of biomass smoke to premature mortality in Europe amounts to at least 40 000 deaths per year.We conclude that emissions from current biomass combustion products negatively affect respiratory and, possibly, cardiovascular health in Europe. Biomass combustion emissions, in contrast to emissions from most other sources of air pollution, are increasing. More needs to be done to further document the health effects of biomass combustion in Europe, and to reduce emissions of harmful biomass combustion products to protect public health.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / adverse effects
  • Air Pollution / adverse effects
  • Air Pollution / statistics & numerical data*
  • Biofuels / adverse effects
  • Biofuels / statistics & numerical data*
  • Biomass*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Climate Change
  • Developed Countries*
  • European Union
  • Health Policy
  • Heating / adverse effects
  • Heating / methods
  • Humans
  • Particulate Matter
  • Public Policy
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / etiology
  • Smoke / adverse effects
  • Wood


  • Air Pollutants
  • Biofuels
  • Particulate Matter
  • Smoke