Background: Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) and postpartum normal glucose tolerance (NGT) may carry impaired islet β cell secretion, insulin resistance and subsequent altered glucose homeostasis. And certain normoglycemic groups at risks of diabetes were presented with elevated glycemic variability. The aim of study was to investigate the glycemic variability in NGT women with pGDM.
Methods: Total 48 NGT women with pGDM (pGDM group) and 48 age- and BMI-matched NGT women without pGDM (control group) were recruited in the study. Integrated β cell function was assessed with the Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 (ISSI-2) derived from oral glucose tolerance test. All subjects were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring system for consecutive 72 h. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the mean blood glucose (MBG), standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), mean of daily differences (MODD), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and the incremental areas above preprandial glucose values (AUCpp).
Results: The pGDM group had a higher MBG (6.5 ± 0.9 vs. 5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, p < 0.05), SDBG (1.3 ± 0.3 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p < 0.05), MODD (1.4 ± 0.3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 mmol/L, p < 0.05), MAGE (2.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.8 ± 0.5 mmol/L, p < 0.05), and AUCpp (26.8 ± 3.4 vs. 19.2 ± 3.2 mmol/L·h, p < 0.05), when compared to the control group, and the differences remained significant after adjusting for anthropometric indices and metabolic risk factors. Islet β cell function index ISSI-2 in the pGDM group was lower than in the control group (p < 0.05). MBG, SDBG, MODD, MAGE and AUCpp were all negatively associated with ISSI-2 in the pGDM group (r = -0.31, -0.30, -0.34, -0.48 and -0.54, respectively, p < 0.05), and the correlations remained significant after adjusting for anthropometric indices and metabolic risk factors.
Conclusions: Normal glucose tolerance women with pGDM were presented with elevated glycemic variability, which may be associated with impaired islet β cell function.
Keywords: Gestational diabetes mellitus; Glycemic variability; Normal glucose tolerance.