Significant advances have been made in developing novel therapeutics for cancer treatment, and targeted therapies have revolutionized the treatment of some cancers. Despite the promise, only about five percent of new cancer drugs are approved, and most fail due to lack of efficacy. The indication is that current preclinical methods are limited in predicting successful outcomes. Such failure exacts enormous cost, both financial and in the quality of human life. This Primer explores the current status, promise, and challenges of preclinical evaluation in advanced mouse cancer models and briefly addresses emerging models for early-stage preclinical development.
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