Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease with a high prevalence worldwide. Diabetes and insulin resistance are associated with the development of cardiovascular and nervous diseases. The development of these disorders reflects complex pathological processes in which the oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) plays a pivotal role. It is widely accepted that diabetes impairs endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and increases the production of ROS, thus resulting in diminished NO bioavailability and increased oxidative stress. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) possesses beneficial effects both in the prevention and in the treatment of diabetes. LA is a potent antioxidant with insulin-mimetic and anti-inflammatory activity. LA in the diet is quickly absorbed, transported to the intracellular compartments, and reduced to dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) under the action of enzymes. LA, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has drawn considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy and other vascular diseases.
Keywords: acide lipoïque; antioxidant; antioxydant; diabetes; diabètes; lipoic acid; metabolism; métabolisme; prevention; prévention; traitement; treatment.