Actinomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria that can be part of the normal human flora of the gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and genital tract. Infections are rare, slowly progressing and most commonly affect the cervicofacial region. Actinomyces israelii is the most frequently isolated species but a number of other species may cause infection. We report the first postnatally acquired case of an actinomycosis caused by A. neuii in a child. We also provide a systematic review of all published cases of A. neuii infections. In children, there is one case report of a premature infant with perinatally acquired A. neuii sepsis. In adults 21 cases have currently been reported and A. neuii infection was associated with endophthalmitis after eye surgery, foreign material-associated infection and abscess formation in the inguinal, axillary, and mammary area. Our case highlights that a A. neuii infection is also a potential differential diagnosis in children with chronic lymphadenitis.
Keywords: Actinomyces neuii; MALDI-TOF; Prevotella; cervical lymphadenitis; children.
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