Mutations in the transmembrane helix S6 of domain IV confer cockroach sodium channel resistance to sodium channel blocker insecticides and local anesthetics

Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 Nov;66:88-95. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.09.011. Epub 2015 Sep 25.


Indoxacarb and metaflumizone are two sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs). They preferably bind to and trap sodium channels in the slow-inactivated non-conducting state, a mode of action similar to that of local anesthetics (LAs). Recently, two sodium channel mutations, F1845Y (F(4i15)Y) and V1848I (V(4i18)I), in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain IV (IVS6), were identified to be associated with indoxacarb resistance in Plutella xylostella. F(4i15) is known to be critical for the action of LAs on mammalian sodium channels. Previously, mutation F(4i15)A in a cockroach sodium channel, BgNav1-1a, has been shown to reduce the action of lidocaine, a LA, but not the action of SCBIs. In this study, we introduced mutations F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)A/I individually into the cockroach sodium channel, BgNav1-1a, and conducted functional analysis of the three mutants in Xenopus oocytes. We found that both the F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations reduced the inhibition of sodium current by indoxacarb, DCJW (an active metabolite of indoxacarb) and metaflumizone. F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations also reduced the use-dependent block of sodium current by lidocaine. In contrast, substitution V(4i18)A enhanced the action metaflumizone and lidocaine. These results show that both F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations may contribute to target-site resistance to SCBIs, and provide the first molecular evidence for common amino acid determinants on insect sodium channels involved in action of SCBIs and LA.

Keywords: Insecticide resistance; Local anesthetics; Sodium channel; Sodium channel blocker insecticides.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anesthetics, Local / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Cockroaches / drug effects*
  • Cockroaches / genetics
  • Insect Proteins / genetics
  • Insect Proteins / metabolism*
  • Insecticide Resistance / genetics
  • Insecticides / pharmacology*
  • Lidocaine / pharmacology
  • Mutation
  • Oocytes / metabolism
  • Oxazines / pharmacology
  • Protein Domains
  • Semicarbazones / pharmacology
  • Sodium Channel Blockers / pharmacology*
  • Sodium Channels / genetics
  • Sodium Channels / metabolism*
  • Xenopus


  • Anesthetics, Local
  • Insect Proteins
  • Insecticides
  • Oxazines
  • Semicarbazones
  • Sodium Channel Blockers
  • Sodium Channels
  • indoxacarb
  • metaflumizone
  • Lidocaine