Will chronic e-cigarette use cause lung disease?

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Dec 15;309(12):L1398-409. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00272.2015. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

Abstract

Chronic tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the lung, tobacco smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, and also causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses both emphysema and chronic bronchitis. E-cigarettes (E-Cigs), or electronic nicotine delivery systems, were developed over a decade ago and are designed to deliver nicotine without combusting tobacco. Although tobacco smoking has declined since the 1950s, E-Cig usage has increased, attracting both former tobacco smokers and never smokers. E-Cig liquids (e-liquids) contain nicotine in a glycerol/propylene glycol vehicle with flavorings, which are vaporized and inhaled. To date, neither E-Cig devices, nor e-liquids, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA has proposed a deeming rule, which aims to initiate legislation to regulate E-Cigs, but the timeline to take effect is uncertain. Proponents of E-Cigs say that they are safe and should not be regulated. Opposition is varied, with some opponents proposing that E-Cig usage will introduce a new generation to nicotine addiction, reversing the decline seen with tobacco smoking, or that E-Cigs generally may not be safe and will trigger diseases like tobacco. In this review, we shall discuss what is known about the effects of E-Cigs on the mammalian lung and isolated lung cells in vitro. We hope that collating this data will help illustrate gaps in the knowledge of this burgeoning field, directing researchers toward answering whether or not E-Cigs are capable of causing disease.

Keywords: cancer; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; cystic fibrosis; nicotine; tobacco.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Lung / drug effects*
  • Lung Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Lung Diseases / etiology*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco / adverse effects*