Despite the availability of effective diagnostics and curative treatment regimens for tuberculosis, millions of people die each year of this disease. The steady global increase in the number of tuberculosis cases caused by multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are of major concern, especially in light of the thin tuberculosis drug pipeline. New tuberculosis drugs are undergoing clinical evaluation, and renewed hope comes from fresh approaches to improve treatment outcomes using a range of adjunct host-directed cellular and repurposed drug therapies. Current efforts in developing second-generation and new rapid point-of-care diagnostic assays take advantage of recent genetic and molecular advances. Slow progress in the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines requires increased funding for basic as well as translational research. Although major challenges remain, these can be overcome by cementing our resolve, raising advocacy, bolstering global funder investments, and leveraging more effective collaborations through equitable public-private partnerships.
Keywords: drug resistance; new treatment regimens; research; resource-limited settings; tuberculosis.
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