[Genetic Differentiation of Local Populations of the Dark European Bee Apis mellifera mellifera L. in the Urals]

Genetika. 2015 Jul;51(7):792-8.
[Article in Russian]


For the last two centuries, beekeepers in Russia and Europe have been introducing bees from the southern regions to the northern ones, subjecting the genetic pool of the dark European bee Apis mellifera mellifera L. subspecies to extensive hybridization. In order to reconfirm on the genetic level the previously published morphological data on the native bee population in the Urals, the Bashkortostan Republic, and the Perm Krai, we analyzed the polymorphism of the mitochondrial (mtDNA COI-COII intergenic locus) and nuclear (two microsatellite loci, ap243 and 4a110) DNA markers. Four local populations of the dark European bee A. m. mellifera surviving in the Urals have been identified, and their principal genetic characteristics have been determined. Data on the genetic structure and geographical localization of the areals of the dark European bee local populations in the Urals may be of use in restoring the damaged genetic pool of A. m. mellifera in Russia and other northern countries.

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bashkiria
  • Bees / genetics*
  • DNA, Intergenic
  • DNA, Mitochondrial*
  • Electron Transport Complex IV / genetics
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetics, Population*
  • Hybridization, Genetic
  • Microsatellite Repeats*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Russia


  • DNA, Intergenic
  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • Electron Transport Complex IV