An updated review on gastro-esophageal reflux in pediatrics

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;9(12):1511-21. doi: 10.1586/17474124.2015.1093932. Epub 2015 Sep 28.


Comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and GER disease (GERD) were developed by the European and North American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. GERD is reflux associated with troublesome symptoms or complications. The recognition of GER and GERD is relevant to implement best management practices. A conservative management is indicated in infants with uncomplicated physiologic reflux. Children with GERD may benefit from further evaluation and treatment. Since the publications of the European and North American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines in 2009, no important novelties in drug treatment have been reported. Innovations are mainly restricted to the management of regurgitation in infants. During the last 5 years, pros and cons of multichannel intraluminal impedance have been highlighted. However, overall 'not much has changed' in the diagnosis and management of GER and GERD in infants and children.

Keywords: gastro-esophageal reflux; gastro-esophageal reflux disease; multichannel intraluminal impedance; pH-metry; regurgitation; spilling.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alginates / therapeutic use
  • Antacids / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cystic Fibrosis / complications
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / diagnosis*
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / drug therapy*
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / epidemiology
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux / therapy
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Milk Hypersensitivity / complications
  • Milk Hypersensitivity / diagnosis
  • Pediatrics
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use


  • Alginates
  • Antacids
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors