Prevalence and Correlates of CKD in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Oct 7;10(10):1757-66. doi: 10.2215/CJN.02020215. Epub 2015 Sep 28.


Background and objectives: The prevalence of ESRD among Hispanics/Latinos is 2-fold higher than in non-Hispanic whites. However, little is known about the prevalence of earlier stages of CKD among Hispanics/Latinos. This study estimated the prevalence of CKD in US Hispanics/Latinos.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a cross-sectional study of 15,161 US Hispanic/Latino adults of Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American backgrounds enrolled in the multicenter, prospective, population-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). In addition, the prevalence of CKD in Hispanics/Latinos was compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Prevalent CKD was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (estimated with the 2012 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration eGFR creatinine-cystatin C equation) or albuminuria based on sex-specific cut points determined at a single point in time.

Results: The overall prevalence of CKD among Hispanics/Latinos was 13.7%. Among women, the prevalence of CKD was 13.0%, and it was lowest in persons with South American background (7.4%) and highest (16.6%) in persons with Puerto Rican background. In men, the prevalence of CKD was 15.3%, and it was lowest (11.2%) in persons with South American background and highest in those who identified their Hispanic background as "other" (16.0%). The overall prevalence of CKD was similar in HCHS/SOL compared with non-Hispanic whites in NHANES. However, prevalence was higher in HCHS/SOL men and lower in HCHS/SOL women versus NHANES non-Hispanic whites. Low income, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were each significantly associated with higher risk of CKD.

Conclusions: Among US Hispanic/Latino adults, there was significant variation in CKD prevalence among Hispanic/Latino background groups, and CKD was associated with established cardiovascular risk factors.

Keywords: CKD; Hispanics; prevalence.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / ethnology
  • Central America / ethnology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cuba / ethnology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / ethnology
  • Dominican Republic / ethnology
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mexico / ethnology
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Poverty
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Puerto Rico / ethnology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / ethnology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • South America / ethnology
  • United States / epidemiology
  • White People / statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult