Extinction reverses olfactory fear-conditioned increases in neuron number and glomerular size

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Oct 13;112(41):12846-51. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1505068112. Epub 2015 Sep 29.


Although much work has investigated the contribution of brain regions such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex to the processing of fear learning and memory, fewer studies have examined the role of sensory systems, in particular the olfactory system, in the detection and perception of cues involved in learning and memory. The primary sensory receptive field maps of the olfactory system are exquisitely organized and respond dynamically to cues in the environment, remaining plastic from development through adulthood. We have previously demonstrated that olfactory fear conditioning leads to increased odorant-specific receptor representation in the main olfactory epithelium and in glomeruli within the olfactory bulb. We now demonstrate that olfactory extinction training specific to the conditioned odor stimulus reverses the conditioning-associated freezing behavior and odor learning-induced structural changes in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb in an odorant ligand-specific manner. These data suggest that learning-induced freezing behavior, structural alterations, and enhanced neural sensory representation can be reversed in adult mice following extinction training.

Keywords: fear extinction; neural plasticity; olfaction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Fear / physiology*
  • Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic / physiology*
  • Learning / physiology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Olfactory Bulb / physiology*
  • Olfactory Mucosa / cytology
  • Olfactory Mucosa / physiology*
  • Receptors, Odorant / genetics
  • Receptors, Odorant / metabolism


  • Receptors, Odorant