Patient-derived orthotopic xenografts: better mimic of metastasis than subcutaneous xenografts

Nat Rev Cancer. 2015 Aug;15(8):451-2. doi: 10.1038/nrc3972.


The majority of human solid tumours do not metastasize when grown subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice; this includes patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. However, orthotopic implantation of intact tumour tissue can lead to metastasis that mimics that seen in patients. These patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models have a long history and might better recapitulate human tumours than PDX models.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Heterografts
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / history
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology*