During the asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblasts (NBs), the scaffold Miranda (Mira) coordinates the subcellular distribution of cell-fate determinants including Staufen (Stau) and segregates them into the ganglion mother cells (GMCs). Here we show the fifth double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domain (dsRBD5) of Stau is necessary and sufficient for binding to a coiled-coil region of Mira cargo-binding domain (CBD). The crystal structure of Mira514-595/Stau dsRBD5 complex illustrates that Mira forms an elongated parallel coiled-coil dimer, and two dsRBD5 symmetrically bind to the Mira dimer through their exposed β-sheet faces, revealing a previously unrecognized protein interaction mode for dsRBDs. We further demonstrate that the Mira-Stau dsRBD5 interaction is responsible for the asymmetric localization of Stau during Drosophila NB asymmetric divisions. Finally, we find the CBD-mediated dimer assembly is likely a common requirement for Mira to recognize and translocate other cargos including brain tumour (Brat).