Tuberculosis (TB) in Malaysia is rising due to multiple factors and issues related to its management are addressed in the updated evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Screening for active TB should be considered in high risk groups. Light emitting diode-based fluorescence microscopy and nucleic acid amplification tests are recommended investigations. Health education and standardised 6-month daily antituberculosis (antiTB) regimen are among important elements for successful treatment. Latent TB infection screening should only be performed on high risk individuals. AntiTB regimen offered to HIV-positive adults should be the same as for HIV-negative adults and timing to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB is based on CD4 count. All patients on antiTB treatment should be monitored to assess their response to treatment and to identify problems associated with it.
Keywords: HIV; Tuberculosis; antituberculosis; clinical practice; guidelines; management.