Acquired chromosomal rearrangements in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) have been linked to specific clinicopathologic features that suggest new disease subtypes. In this collaborative study, we report five patients with ANLL and a t(3;5) in their leukemic cells. At diagnosis, four of the patients had a t(3;5) as their sole karyotypic anomaly; the remaining patient had additional structural and numerical abnormalities. Careful cytogenetic analysis indicated that the breakpoints of this rearrangement are 3q25.1 and 5q34, in contrast to the various breakpoints reported in earlier studies (3q21----3q25 and 5q31----5q35). The karyotypic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics of this group, as well as those of 14 previously reported patients with the t(3;5), were compared to identify any features that might warrant consideration of a specific syndrome. The available information indicates a worldwide distribution and a nearly equal male:female ratio for patients with this translocation. The median age of the group, 37 years, was younger than that of all patients with ANLL, 49 years. A preceding myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in three patients. The limited numbers of observations on leukocyte count, hemoglobin level, and platelet count precluded meaningful comparison with data for ANLL patients in general. Although each FAB morphologic subtype, except M3, occurred in patients with a t(3;5), the frequency of M6 was much greater than expected. Bone marrows from each of the five patients we report showed increased numbers of megakaryocytes; trilineage dysplasia was observed in the marrow of each of the four patients for whom it could be assessed. Taken together, these findings suggest that the t(3;5) may affect cells capable of differentiation into multiple lineages.