The Function of Arf-like Proteins ARL2 and ARL3 in Photoreceptors

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;854:655-61. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-17121-0_87.


Arf-like proteins (ARLs) are ubiquitously expressed small G proteins of the RAS superfamily. In photoreceptors, ARL2 and ARL3 participate in the trafficking of lipidated membrane-associated proteins and colocalize in the inner segment with UNC119A and PDEδ. UNC119A and PDEδ are acyl- and prenyl-binding proteins, respectively, involved in trafficking of acylated (transducin-α subunit, nephrocystin NPHP3) and prenylated proteins (GRK1, PDE6). Germline Arl3 knockout mice do not survive beyond postnatal day 21 and display ciliary defects in multiple organs (kidney, liver and pancreas) as well as retinal degeneration. Conditional knockouts will be necessary to delineate mechanisms of protein transport in retina disease.

Keywords: Arf-like protein 2 (ARL2); Arf-like protein 3 (ARL3); Phosphodiesterase δ-subunit (PDEδ); Retinitis pigmentosa protein 2 (RP2); Rod photoreceptor; unc-119 homolog (C. elegans) (UNC119A).

MeSH terms

  • ADP-Ribosylation Factors / genetics
  • ADP-Ribosylation Factors / metabolism*
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6 / metabolism
  • Eye Proteins / genetics
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism*
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Transport
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Eye Proteins
  • Unc119 protein, mouse
  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6
  • Arl2 protein, mouse
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Arl3 protein, mouse
  • ADP-Ribosylation Factors