Nuclear receptor interaction protein (NRIP, also known as DCAF6 and IQWD1) is a Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin-binding protein. In this study, we newly identify NRIP as a Z-disc protein in skeletal muscle. NRIP-knockout mice were generated and found to have reduced muscle strength, susceptibility to fatigue and impaired adaptive exercise performance. The mechanisms of NRIP-regulated muscle contraction depend on NRIP being downstream of Ca(2+) signaling, where it stimulates activation of both 'calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1' (CaN-NFATc1; also known as NFATC1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) through interaction with calmodulin (CaM), resulting in the induction of mitochondrial activity and the expression of genes encoding the slow class of myosin, and in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis through the internal Ca(2+) stores of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, NRIP-knockout mice have a delayed regenerative capacity. The amount of NRIP can be enhanced after muscle injury and is responsible for muscle regeneration, which is associated with the increased expression of myogenin, desmin and embryonic myosin heavy chain during myogenesis, as well as for myotube formation. In conclusion, NRIP is a novel Z-disc protein that is important for skeletal muscle strength and regenerative capacity.
Keywords: CaM; Muscle contraction; NRIP; Regeneration; Z-disc.
© 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.