Objective: To compare the levels of glutathione (GSH), both oxidized and reduced forms in patients with and without chronic periodontitis in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
Materials and methods: Twenty GCF samples from maxillary quadrants were collected using capillary micropipettes from the chronic periodontitis patients (test group) at baseline before treatment, at 1-month, 3 months, and 6 months after scaling and root planing and samples from 20 patients without chronic periodontitis (control group) from maxillary quadrants were also collected. GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels and GSH: GSSG ratios were determined using the spectrophotometric method.
Statistical analysis: Results were concluded for the test over control groups using paired Student's t-test.
Results: Lower concentrations of GSH (P < 0.001) and GSSG (P < 0.001) were detected in GCF in patients with chronic periodontitis (test group) than patients without chronic periodontitis (control group) at baseline. Treatment had a significant effect in improving the GSH and reducing GSSG levels postscaling and root planing at 1-month and 3 months but not significant effect at 6 months. Scaling and root planing increased the GSH: GSSG ratio (P < 0.001) in the test group as compared to the control group (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: The concentrations of GSH within GCF are reduced in chronic periodontitis patients. Scaling and root planing (nonsurgical therapy) restores GSH concentration in GCF post 1-month and 3 months along with redox balance (GSH: GSSG ratio), but at 6 months the balance is not maintained. Adjunctive use of micronutritional supplements to boost antioxidant concentration in tissues by preserving GSH or by elevating its level at the inflamed sites is recommended, as nonsurgical periodontal therapy alone is not able to maintain redox balance for longer duration.
Keywords: Chronic periodontitis; oxidized glutathione; redox balance; reduced glutathione.