Cumulative Brain Injury from Motor Vehicle-Induced Whole-Body Vibration and Prevention by Human Apolipoprotein A-I Molecule Mimetic (4F) Peptide (an Apo A-I Mimetic)

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015 Dec;24(12):2759-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2015.08.007.


Background: Insidious cumulative brain injury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (MV-WBV) has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to validate whether whole-body vibration for long periods causes cumulative brain injury and impairment of the cerebral function. We also explored a preventive method for MV-WBV injury.

Methods: A study simulating whole-body vibration was conducted in 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 9 groups (N = 8): (1) 2-week normal control; (2) 2-week sham control (in the tube without vibration); (3) 2-week vibration (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and .5 G acceleration for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks; vibration parameters in the present study are similar to the most common driving conditions); (4) 4-week sham control; (5) 4-week vibration; (6) 4-week vibration with human apolipoprotein A-I molecule mimetic (4F)-preconditioning; (7) 8-week sham control; (8) 8-week vibration; and (9) 8-week 4F-preconditioning group. All the rats were evaluated by behavioral, physiological, and histological studies of the brain.

Results: Brain injury from vibration is a cumulative process starting with cerebral vasoconstriction, squeezing of the endothelial cells, increased free radicals, decreased nitric oxide, insufficient blood supply to the brain, and repeated reperfusion injury to brain neurons. In the 8-week vibration group, which indicated chronic brain edema, shrunken neuron numbers increased and whole neurons atrophied, which strongly correlated with neural functional impairment. There was no prominent brain neuronal injury in the 4F groups.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated cumulative brain injury from MV-WBV and validated the preventive effects of 4F preconditioning.

Keywords: Brain injury; neural functional impairment; neuronal atrophy; whole-body vibration.

MeSH terms

  • Accidents, Traffic
  • Animals
  • Brain Injuries / drug therapy*
  • Brain Injuries / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Peptides / therapeutic use*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Vibration*


  • AP-4F peptide
  • Peptides