To determine the risk factors associated with adverse aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with Stanford type B aortic dissection, we performed a retrospective analysis of 54 patients between January 2009 and June 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. All patients underwent TEVAR of the descending thoracic aorta. Multiple-logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with aortic remodeling. True-lumen and false-lumen volumes were increased (P < 0.001) and decreased (P < 0.001) after surgery, respectively. Therefore, the remodeling index increased after surgery (1.04 ± 0.6 to 2.06 ± 1.12, P < 0.001). Remodeling index and true-lumen volume were higher in the favorable aortic remodeling group compared to the adverse aortic remodeling group (P < 0.001), while the false-lumen volume was lower in the favorable aortic remodeling group (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed a branch originating from the false lumen (OR = 39.9, P < 0.01) and multiple tears (OR = 27.4, P < 0.01) to be independent risk factors for adverse aortic remodeling. Therefore, a branch originating from the false lumen and multiple tears were determined to be independent risk factors for adverse aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with Stanford type B aortic dissection.