Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated to adapt mitochondrial population to cell energy demands. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) performs several functions for mtDNA and interactions between TFAM and mtDNA participate to regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Such interactions are modulated through different mechanisms: regulation of TFAM expression and turnover, modulation of TFAM binding activity to mtDNA through post-translational modifications and differential affinity of TFAM, occurrence of TFAM sliding on mtDNA filaments and of cooperative binding among TFAM molecules, modulation of protein-protein interactions. The tissue-specific regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in aging and calorie restriction (CR) highlights the relevance of modulation of TFAM-mtDNA interactions.
Keywords: Aging; Calorie restriction; Mitochondrial biogenesis; MtDNA; TFAM; TFAM–mtDNA interactions.