Using immunohistochemical techniques, we studied ligneous conjunctival lesions from two patients. A significant immune reaction was detected that was characterized by activated T lymphocytes and focal accumulation of plasma cells and B lymphocytes. Immunofluorescent studies demonstrated that IgG was a prominent component of the amorphous hyaline material seen in these lesions. After previous treatment methods had failed, both patients were treated with excisional biopsy and topical cyclosporine. Patient 1 had a dramatic response, with complete resolution of the lesions. Patient 2 had a significant improvement resulting in small, slow-growing recurrences instead of the rapid and extensive recurrences that occurred before treatment with cyclosporine.