Genetic Tailors: CTCF and Cohesin Shape the Genome During Evolution

Trends Genet. 2015 Nov;31(11):651-660. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2015.09.004. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Abstract

Research into chromosome structure and organization is an old field that has seen some fascinating progress in recent years. Modern molecular methods that can describe the shape of chromosomes have begun to revolutionize our understanding of genome organization and the mechanisms that regulate gene activity. A picture is beginning to emerge of chromatin loops representing a widespread organizing principle of the chromatin fiber and the proteins cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) as key players anchoring such chromatin loops. Here we review our current understanding of the features of CTCF- and cohesin-mediated genome organization and how their evolution may have helped to shape genome structure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution*
  • CCCTC-Binding Factor
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / chemistry*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism
  • Chromatin / chemistry*
  • Chromatin / metabolism
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / chemistry*
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism
  • Chromosomes / chemistry*
  • Chromosomes / metabolism
  • Drosophila melanogaster / genetics
  • Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genome*
  • Humans
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Repressor Proteins / chemistry*
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism

Substances

  • CCCTC-Binding Factor
  • CTCF protein, human
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromatin
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Repressor Proteins
  • cohesins