Aesthetic Uses of Neuromodulators: Current Uses and Future Directions

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Nov;136(5 Suppl):62S-71S. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000001773.


Background: The introduction of neuromodulators for aesthetic facial improvements greatly expanded the limits of nonsurgical facial rejuvenation. Although many current uses are considered "off-label," the widespread acceptance and favorable safety profile of properly used botulinum toxins have made them one of the most common aesthetic treatments available.

Methods: A literature review of current facial aesthetic uses of various botulinum toxin preparations was done, and general concepts were identified.

Results: Currently, Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxin preparations onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport), and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) have similar off-label indications and clinical uses.

Conclusions: Although not considered interchangeable, administration and clinical outcomes are not much different between the 3 commonly used botulinum products. The impact of botulinum products currently in development has yet to be determined.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Esthetics*
  • Humans
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Rejuvenation*
  • Rhytidoplasty / methods*
  • Skin Aging*


  • Neurotransmitter Agents