Retina. 2016 Apr;36(4):787-90. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000756.


Purpose: To evaluate effects of current and past sunlight exposure and iris color on early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Methods: Of 3,701 individuals from the EUGENDA database, 752 (20.3%) showed early AMD, 1,179 (31.9%) late AMD, and 1,770 (47.8%) were controls. Information about current and past sunlight exposure, former occupation type, subdivided in indoor working and outdoor working, and iris color were obtained by standardized interviewer-assisted questionnaires. Associations between environmental factors adjusted for age, gender, and smoking and early and late AMD were performed by multivariate regression analysis.

Results: Current sunlight exposure showed no association with early AMD or late AMD, but past sunlight exposure (≥8 hours outside daily) was significantly associated with early AMD (odds ratio: 5.54, 95% confidence interval 1.25-24.58, P = 0.02) and late AMD (odds ratio: 2.77, 95% confidence interval 1.25-6.16, P = 0.01). Outside working was found to be associated with late AMD (odds ratio: 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.89-3.48, P = 1.58 × 10). No association was observed between iris color and early or late AMD.

Conclusion: Sunlight exposure during working life is an important risk factor for AMD, whereas sunlight exposure after retirement seems to have less influence on the disease development. Therefore, preventive measures, for example, wearing sunglasses to minimize sunlight exposure, should start early to prevent development of AMD later in life.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Databases, Factual
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Eye Color
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / classification
  • Macular Degeneration / diagnosis
  • Macular Degeneration / etiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupations
  • Odds Ratio
  • Radiation Injuries / classification
  • Radiation Injuries / diagnosis
  • Radiation Injuries / etiology*
  • Retina / radiation effects*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sunlight / adverse effects*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects*