Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with peripheral insulin resistance. The currently used therapies aim to delay progression of T2DM. Their efficacy could drastically be improved if implemented at earlier stages. Classical diagnostic markers (blood glucose and HbA1C) are generally detected once metabolic imbalance has already set in. Therefore, development of biomarkers for early diagnosis would help identify individuals at risk for developing T2DM. Along with genetic predisposition, epigenetics also plays a major role in T2DM development. In this review, we discuss the potential role of early diagnostic markers such as circulating miRNAs, studies done so far and challenges to be considered while taking into account the novel role of miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers.
Keywords: HbA1C; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; biomarker; miRNA; pancreatic β-cell.