Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to secondary neuropsychiatric problems that develop and persist years after injury. Mounting evidence indicates that neuroinflammatory processes progress after the initial head injury and worsen with time. Microglia contribute to this inflammation by maintaining a primed profile long after the acute effects of the injury have dissipated. This may set the stage for glial dysfunction and hyperactivity to challenges including subsequent head injury, stress, or induction of a peripheral immune response. This review discusses the evidence that microglia become primed following TBI and how this corresponds with vulnerability to a 'second hit' and subsequent neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative complications.
Keywords: immune challenge; microglia; neuroinflammation; priming; traumatic brain injury.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.