Percutaneous drainage of 101 pancreatic pseudocysts (51 infected, 50 noninfected) in 77 patients is described. In this group of patients, 91 of 101 pseudocysts were cured by means of catheter drainage (90.1%) (noninfected, 43 of 50 [86%]; infected, 48 of 51 [94.1%]). Six patients underwent operation after percutaneous treatment due to persistent drainage. In patients with infected pseudocysts, the infection was eradicated by percutaneous drainage before operation. Four pseudocysts recurred and were redrained percutaneously. The mean duration of drainage was 19.6 days (infected pseudocysts, 16.7 days; noninfected, 21.2 days). Various access routes were used for catheter drainage: transperitoneal, retroperitoneal, transhepatic, transgastric, transduodenal, and transsplenic (inadvertent). Four major (superinfections) and six minor complications occurred. An unexpected finding in seven patients was spontaneous fistulization of the pseudocyst into the gastrointestinal tract. Percutaneous drainage is an effective front-line treatment for most pancreatic pseudocysts; cure is likely if fluid collections are drained adequately and if sufficient time is allowed for closure of fistulas from the pancreatic duct.