Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015 Nov 1;309(9):R1078-81. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00156.2015. Epub 2015 Oct 7.


Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure.

Keywords: NKCC2; fructose; renal function; salt sensitivity.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / adverse effects
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacokinetics*
  • Fructose / administration & dosage
  • Fructose / adverse effects
  • Fructose / pharmacokinetics*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Hypertension / metabolism*
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Models, Biological
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / adverse effects
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / pharmacokinetics*


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary
  • Fructose