Twelve men consumed a diet containing 34% of calories as 70% amylose or amylopectin starch to determine if the structure of starch could influence metabolic factors associated with abnormal states. Each starch was fed to subjects for 5 wk in a crossover design. No significant differences were observed in glucose or insulin levels when a glucose tolerance was given after 4 wk on each starch. However, glucose and insulin responses were significantly lower when a meal containing amylose compared with amylopectin was consumed after 5 wk on each starch. Summation of 0.5 through 2-h levels of insulin but not glucose were significantly lower after amylose compared with levels after amylopectin. Mean fasting triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly lower during the period when amylose was consumed. Long-term intake of dietary amylose may be valuable in decreasing insulin response while maintaining proper control of glucose tolerance and low levels of blood lipids.