Nonenzymatic antioxidants in saliva of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Lupus. 2016 Mar;25(3):265-71. doi: 10.1177/0961203315605368. Epub 2015 Oct 7.


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-directed self-antigens, immune complex formation and immune deregulation, resulting in damage to essentially all the organs. SLE is associated with the increased production of free radicals. Increase in free radicals or impaired antioxidant defense system in SLE causes oxidative stress. Considering that saliva could be a reflection of the state of health, the purpose of this study was to evaluate some antioxidants in the saliva and serum of patients with SLE and compare these with healthy individuals. This could help us in obtaining a possible marker in saliva in the future. During the course of the practical part of the project, 30 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls were investigated. After centrifugation of un-stimulated saliva and blood samples, they were examined using spectrophotometric methods and the results were analyzed by statistical software. According to the results, concentrations of malondialdehyde, uric acid and total antioxidants were significantly increased but the level of reduced glutathion was reduced significantly in the saliva and serum of SLE patients as compared to controls. It is therefore suggested that antioxidant power is impaired in saliva and serum of SLE patients. As there was a positive correlation between the antioxidant level of saliva and blood serum, the antioxidant status of saliva could be an indicator of serum antioxidants.

Keywords: Lupus; antioxidants; free radicals; oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Glutathione / analysis
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / blood
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / diagnosis
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / metabolism*
  • Malondialdehyde / analysis*
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidative Stress*
  • Saliva / chemistry*
  • Uric Acid / analysis
  • Young Adult


  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Uric Acid
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Glutathione