Live Music Therapy as an Active Focus of Attention for Pain and Behavioral Symptoms of Distress During Pediatric Immunization

Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2016 Jul;55(8):745-8. doi: 10.1177/0009922815610613. Epub 2015 Oct 7.


A total of 100 children coming for routine immunization to pediatric outpatient department were included and were divided into experiment (n = 50) and control (n = 50) groups. Experiment group received live music therapy during immunization procedure. Control group received no intervention. The Modified Behavior Pain Scale (MBPS), 10-point pain levels, and 10-point distress levels were documented by parents. Duration of crying was recorded by investigators. Pre- and postimmunization blood pressures and heart rates of parents holding the children were also measured and recorded by investigators. Independent and paired t tests were used for analysis. All 3 domains of the Modified Behavior Pain Scale and duration of crying showed significant improvement (P < .05) in the experiment group. Pain and distress levels also showed statistically nonsignificant improvement in experiment group. Blood pressure and heart rate of parents showed no difference. Music therapy could be helpful to children, parents, and health care providers by reducing discomfort of the child during pediatric immunization.

Keywords: immunization; music therapy; pain; pain perception; vaccination.

MeSH terms

  • Attention*
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Heart Rate*
  • Humans
  • Immunization / psychology*
  • Male
  • Music Therapy / methods*
  • Pain / prevention & control*
  • Pain / psychology
  • Stress, Psychological / prevention & control*
  • Vaccination / psychology