Background: The influence of systemic comorbidities on the success of scalp cooling during chemotherapy (CT) is widely unexplored. Comorbidities often require additional medication which itself can occasionally cause alopecia. This study investigates the influence of selected parameters on the efficacy of scalp cooling for the prevention of CT-induced alopecia.
Patients and methods: 226 cancer patients were treated with various CT regimens in combination with sensor-controlled scalp cooling. 136 breast cancer patients received (neo)adjuvant therapy, and 76 of these patients received epirubicine and cyclophosphamide (4× EC 3w) followed by paclitaxel (12× T w). The following parameters were prospectively investigated: chemotherapy-induced alopecia, systemic comorbidities and co-medication, nicotine abuse, hair treatment, menopausal status, and trichologic status.
Results: Scalp cooling was successful (no or not visible hair loss; common toxicity criteria 0-1) in 65% of all patients, in 65% of the 136 breast cancer patients, and in 68% of the 76 patients receiving EC/T. In this subgroup, premenopausal patients (p = 0.009) and those without systemic comorbidities (p = 0.003), without co-medication (p < 0.001) and with high hair density (p = 0.038) showed less hair loss during CT; an effect was also seen for nicotine abuse (p = 0.023). Hair length and hair treatment had no significant influence.
Conclusion: Sensor-controlled scalp cooling represents an effective addition to supportive cancer therapy. The success of scalp cooling depends on the applied CT regimen. Parameters like menopausal status, systemic comorbidities, medication, nicotine abuse, and original hair density also influence the outcome of hair loss prevention.
© 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.