EUS-guided treatment of gastric fundal varices with combined injection of coils and cyanoacrylate glue: a large U.S. experience over 6 years (with video)

Gastrointest Endosc. 2016 Jun;83(6):1164-72. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2015.09.040. Epub 2015 Oct 9.


Background and aims: Conventional endoscopic treatment of gastric fundal varices (GFV) with cyanoacrylate (CYA) glue may be complicated by embolization and rebleeding. We evaluated the long-term outcomes of EUS-guided injection of coils and CYA glue for therapy of GFV.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients treated for GFV was performed. The main outcomes measured were hemostasis, obliteration on surveillance EUS, post-treatment bleeding rate, and adverse events.

Results: From March 2009 to 2015, 152 patients with GFV were treated. Seven (5%) had active hemorrhage, 105 (69%) had recent bleeding, and 40 (26%) were treated for primary prophylaxis. Treatment was technically successful in 151 patients (>99%). Mean number of coils was 1.4 (range, 1-4 coils), and mean volume of CYA was 2 mL (range, 0.5-6). Follow-up was available for 125 patients with treated GFV (mean, 436 days; range, 30-2043). Among 100 patients with follow-up EUS examinations, complete obliteration (on Doppler study) of GFV was confirmed in 93 (93%). Post-treatment bleeding from obliterated GFV occurred in 3 of 93 patients (3%). Twenty-five patients who had clinical and/or EGD follow-up had 3 post-treatment bleeding episodes after a median follow-up of 324 days (range, 41-486). Among the 40 patients treated for primary prophylaxis, 28 underwent follow-up EUS and 27 (96%) had confirmed obliteration. Mild postprocedure abdominal pain occurred in 4 of 125 patients (3%), and clinical signs of pulmonary embolization were seen in 1 patient (1%). Another 4 of 125 patients (3%) presented with minor delayed upper GI bleeding from coil/glue extrusion.

Conclusions: EUS-guided combined coil and CYA glue injection of high-risk GFV appears to be highly effective for hemostasis in active bleeding and primary and secondary bleeding prophylaxis. Once obliteration was achieved, post-treatment bleeding from GFV occurred in only 3% during long-term follow-up. Combination therapy appears safe and may reduce the risk of CYA embolization.

Publication types

  • Video-Audio Media

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cyanoacrylates / therapeutic use*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods*
  • Endosonography
  • Esophageal and Gastric Varices / therapy*
  • Female
  • Gastric Fundus*
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / prevention & control*
  • Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / therapy
  • Gastroscopy / methods*
  • Hemostasis, Endoscopic
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted
  • Surgical Equipment
  • Tissue Adhesives / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Cyanoacrylates
  • Tissue Adhesives