Specific Antibody Deficiencies

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2015 Nov;35(4):659-70. doi: 10.1016/j.iac.2015.07.003. Epub 2015 Aug 25.


Patients with specific antibody deficiency (SAD) have a deficient immunologic response to polysaccharide antigens. Such patients experience sinopulmonary infections with increased frequency, duration, or severity compared with the general population. SAD is definitively diagnosed by immunologic challenge with a pure polysaccharide vaccine in patients 2 years old and older who have otherwise intact immunity, using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine as the current gold standard. Specific antibody deficiencies comprise multiple immunologic phenotypes. Treatment must be tailored based on the severity of symptoms. Most patients have a good prognosis. The deficiency may resolve over time, especially in children.

Keywords: Immunoglobulin replacement; Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; Recurrent sinopulmonary infections; Specific antibody deficiency; Vaccine failure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Disease Management
  • Dysgammaglobulinemia / diagnosis*
  • Dysgammaglobulinemia / epidemiology
  • Dysgammaglobulinemia / etiology
  • Dysgammaglobulinemia / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Prognosis